Typhoid

1. What is typhoid fever?

Typhoid fever is a serious disease caused by a bacterial called S. typhi, which is acquired, from contaminated food and water. Typhoid manifest with high fever, weakness, stomach pain, loss of appetite, headache and sometimes with a rash. If not treated it can even lead to death. Some of the individual who are infected with this disease will become carriers who can harbor these bacteria and can spread to others.

2. What are the types of Typhoid vaccines available?

  1. Killed vaccine- given by injection for children over 2 years of age. Needs booster injection every 3 years.
  2. Live attenuated vaccine- given by mouth for children over 6 years of age and need to be repeated every 3 years (Need to take one capsule every alternate day for 3 doses)
  3. Typhoid conjugate Vaccine(TCV)- The first ever Conjugate vaccine for Typhoid was produced in India by an Indian company and attained WHO prequalification in the year 2018. Conjugate Vaccine is superior to the above two vaccine types because of their ability to provide better immunogenicity,  longer-lasting protection,  fewer doses, and that can be administered to children younger than two years of age(from 6 months onwards in endemic regions)

3. When to give Typhoid vaccine for my child?

Typhoid conjugate Vaccine can be given from 6 month onwards and Indian Academy of Pediatrics recommends conjugate vaccine from 10 month onwards and again a booster dose at 2 years.  Killed Typhoid vaccine is given for children at 2 years of age and booster dose every 3 years from then on.

4. Who should not receive Typhoid vaccine?

Killed vaccine (Injection) & TCV: Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of Typhoid vaccine should not get another dose.

Live Typhoid vaccine (Oral): Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of Typhoid vaccine or if the immune system is weakened (HIV/AIDS, treatment with steroids >2 weeks, treatment for cancer) should not get oral typhoid vaccine.

5. What are the side effects of Typhoid vaccine?

Serious side effects from both the type of Typhoid vaccine are very rare.

  • Killed vaccine (Injection): Fever, headache or swelling at the site of injection
  • Live Typhoid vaccine (Oral): Fever, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or rash.
  • TCV: Pain, tenderness at injection site, low grade fever are the commonly reported side effects.

6. What to do if there is any moderate or severe reaction?

Call the doctor, or get the person to a doctor right away

“Content Source: Centers for Disease Control and prevention, Indian Academy of pediatrics”

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